Elder, those are very interesting questions that you ask. Seems to me that this issue of identity affects all immigrants, at one point or another. My theory is that one's identification with a particular country (and I am speaking only about immigrants) has much to do with the way one immigrated and whether one has the possibility of returning to one's country of origin. For those who immigrated to the US with no possibility of ever returning to their country of birth, the identification with the US is much stronger than for those who can go back. My example is Russian immigrants who came to the US in 90s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many of them don't have as strong of an identification with America because they can always return; they did not flee their country of birth, they left to try something new. Alternatively, those who fled the Soviet Union in the 70s gave up (or were forced to give up) their Russian identity, and thus think of themselves as American, having no other nationality to fall back on.